Under hair loss (alopecia) understand pathological hair loss diffuse or focal nature. Disease significantly affects patient’s life quality, his self-esteem, therefore, this pathology pays great attention to dermatologists and trichologists.
Hair loss cause is difficult to establish, but several factors can play key role in pathogenesis:
- Hormonal disruptions (estrogen and androgen imbalance).
- Genetic predisposition.
- Nervous breakdowns, stress and prolonged depression.
- Various types of intoxication.
- Vascular disorders.
- Gastrointestinal disorders.
Hair follicles condition can be affected by pregnancy and lactation, reception or cancellation of COC (combined oral contraceptives), strict diet, and extensive surgical intervention.
Alopecia is usually classified into many types:
- It can be expressed by decrease hair number on all skin areas or exclusively on scalp. Hair is thin, brittle, slow-growing, short, sometimes discolored.
- It can appear at any age and for any period of time.
- It also appears in young age and can be treat by different methods
- It occurs under radioactive radiation influence, strong poisons and chemotherapy. In this case, hair begins to fall out in growth phase. After cessation of negative factors impact, hairline is restored in period of 3–9 months.
- It occurs with mechanical damage to hair follicles and formation of scar tissue in their place. This baldness is 1-2% of all cases of baldness. It may occur after injuries and burns, as well as a result of viral, bacterial or fungal lesions, accompanied by tissue inflammation and subsequent scarring.
Most common forms are diffuse and nest.
Diffuse is characterized by uniform hair loss on scalp. This type of alopecia is more common among women and is usually inherited. Hair is thinned, atrophic; in diagnosis, elongated zones of thinning are visualized.
Nest prolapse is manifested in form of rounded pockets of hair loss, that appear on head, beard, eyebrows, on body. Focal nature of hair loss is often associated with toxic, infectious lesion of hair follicles, diseases of immune system.
Diagnosis of alopecia is to conduct physical examination, trichogram, history taking. Additionally, clinical, biochemical blood tests, gastrointestinal, and hormone studies are prescribed.
Tactics of alopecia treatment is selected, based on type, etiology and prevalence of disease. An important condition for therapy success is to determine cause of hair loss. Therapy is aimed at eliminating underlying disease: endocrine, vascular, infectious, autoimmune, etc. Restorative treatment includes B vitamins, antioxidants, micro-and macronutrients.
As an addition, a lot of modern cosmetic procedures are used: PRP-therapy, mesotherapy, ozone therapy, microcurrents. They increase blood flow to hair follicles, stimulate blood circulation and oxygen metabolism, and promote hair regrowth.